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The second period spans to and Tolkien's involvement in the British Esperanto movement, thanks to the emergence of new information hitherto unknown. Thanks to Cilli's research, a document previously unknown in Tolkien studies,The Educational Value of Esperanto, signed by Tolkien alongside other eminent British academics of the time, is included. A contribution from Tim Owen of the Esperanto Association of Britain enriches the book, which adds biographical details about Tolkien and his interest in languages, and adds insight into how he build his Legendarium, by providing the context of Esperanto at the time that Tolkien knew it.
The Preface is entrusted to John Garth, one of the most important scholars of the life and works of J. Tolkien and author of the books Tolkien and the Great War: Wynne and Arden R. Tolkien and the British Esperantist Movement. He is the curator of a series of studies on the life and works of J.
Tolkien in the context of his times. Tolkien and the Great War , his biographical study exploring the invention of Middle-earth against the backdrop of the First World War, won the Mythopoeic Award for Scholarship. He read English at Oxford and went on to become a journalist, working for many years on the London Evening Standard.
We are obliged to count them all, name them one by one so that we might comprehend how many names have been severed from their bodies, in a single day in the Mediterranean. The film explores precisely this separation of body and name through aesthetic choices which represent the unrecoverable corporeal loss of the not-to-be-forgotten dead. These choices not only represent their absence and mourn their loss, but also present an alternative aesthetic to the spectacularization of the abject African body familiar from standard media representations.
There is an abrupt cut to underwater scenes and choppy waves.
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The camera pans in on a stylized drawing of a boat with a jump cut to a close-up of the blackness of the hold. The camera again pans across watercolour paintings of people, embracing or with arms outstretched attempting to swim to the surface. A slow animated sequence of people standing with the upper half of their bodies covered with shrouds is followed by actual footage of the same.
The soundtrack to this sequence alternates between the sound of gently lapping waves and the music of a single instrument which accompanies the female voice. Her singing merges into a ferocious spoken indictment of the culpability of African leaders and the indifference of European politicians, proud of the values of Western civilization.
The families of the dead are exhorted to call out their names in remembrance. Before the female narrator begins the work of reciting each name, she speaks a few lines over animated images of the shrouds denouncing the longevity of what is often portrayed as an exceptional moment of crisis. Two points in particular are forcefully made. As mentioned above, Italian citizenship was conferred on those who drowned on 3 October while the survivors were interned. Many of the names are accompanied by the literal translation of their meaning. In addition to hearing the names, the spectator sees them hurtle directly towards her; the Tigrinya script adding to the unfamiliarity of the experience [ Fig.
The recitation of the names is a deliberate strategy to remember those who died and to displace that memory from mere statistical enumeration. Translating the meaning of each name deepens the existential and cultural roots of each life.
Judith Butler ponders the relevance of the name in her discussion of the ethical parameters of the Abu Ghraib images of abused Iraqi prisoners. They are, and are not, ours to know. In this sense, the face and name are not ours to know, and affirming this cognitive limit is a way of affirming the humanity that has escaped the control of the photograph.
Butler makes the point that in this particular instance the photographer is wholly complicit in the scene. A different complicity entangles the Turkish photograph Nilufer Demir whose images of the Syrian boy, Alan Kurdi, who drowned on 2 September , resonated across the world.
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It is a corpse that is less than human, it is a thing. While this thing waits to be claimed, you will become something else in this world: There is no ritual for mourning the unclaimed. There is no paying of respects for unmarked graves. While your body is thrown into a shallow grave and marked with a number, the you that is attached to a name, the you that now lacks a body, will have simply disappeared from this earth.
Menghiste endorses his determination to work through the entanglement, a commitment inherent to the projects of Scego and Dagmawi.
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As I noted earlier, both Rothberg and Chow are deeply engaged in tracing the forms of entanglement that memory assumes. Paul Gilroy does similar work in his study of the Black Atlantic, a study which ends on a compellingly entangled reading of Levi and Toni Morrison:. The traceable displacement I want to end on underlines the ethical purchase of the entanglements proposed by Igiaba Scego and Dagmawi Yimer and relates to its staging in one particular site.
Since its inception, Binario 21 , the memorial in Milan station, has functioned as a very active space of commemoration, not only to the Shoah but to other instances of mass slaughter. The site has also given space to the testimonial voices of the marginalized and persecuted. Yet a different form of intervention took place there between June and November , when Binario 21 offered overnight accommodation to approximately 5, refugees, mostly just passing through Milan, as they travelled onwards to a destination in northern Europe.
It provided migrants with shelter, food, and clothing, and put on a range of cultural activities including the gathering of testimonies from those eager to pass on their stories. One of these activities required everyone to trace the outline of their hand on a large piece of paper and write their name on it [ Fig. This corporeal and graphic act of self-inscription, of presence, defies the presumed anonymity of the migrant. The symbolism of the hand gestures towards the resignification of the forced finger printing introduced by the Italian government to identify and process migrants.
Reflecting on the ambiguities of the representational strategies of Christian Boltanski, who has used documents such as photographs to complicate rather than confirm matters of historical record, Brett Ashley Kaplan focuses on the determining potency of affect rather than fact.
He has published widely on modern Italian literature and film and currently works on representations of migration to Italy in visual and text-based media. How to quote this article: Gordon, Emiliano Perra, Quest. Issues in Contemporary Jewish History. Focus Holocaust Intersections in 21st-Century Europe. Imprints of the Shoah on Migration to Italy. Between Local and Global Politics of Memory: Temporal Cross-References and Multidirectional Comparisons: Holocaust Research and Archives in the Digital Age.
Insights on an Unusual Scenario. Portrait of Italian Jewish Life ss.
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Travels to the "Holy Land": Perceptions, Representations and Narratives. Contested Narratives of a Shared Past. The Making of Antisemitism as a Political Movement. Political History as Cultural History Modernity and the Cities of the Jews. Jews in Europe after the Shoah.
Studies and Research Perspectives. Entanglements of Place Dagmawi Yimer: I also want to prioritize three aspects of his analysis which seem particularly helpful: Audio-visual Entanglements In Adua , Scego translates the photograph given to her by Limentani into a family of ghosts which haunts Zoppe, the colonial subject in Rome.
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In a short essay in the volume accompanying Come un uomo sulla terra in which he describes how he kept a diary assiduously during his journey from Ethiopia, Dagmawi reflects on his ethical commitment to witnessing: In a short commentary on the film, Dagmawi writes: Paul Gilroy does similar work in his study of the Black Atlantic, a study which ends on a compellingly entangled reading of Levi and Toni Morrison: Rizzoli, , Two years later, another book was published with the same title referring however to Italian camps for Yugoslav prisoners: The imprecision is resonant of what I will discuss here.
All translations from Italian are my own. I have retained the original Italian in a few cases to highlight a particular word or expression the recurrence of which is in itself significant. Representing Migration in Contemporary Media and Narrative , eds. Peter Lang, , Duke University Press, , New York, , ; Demos suggests that the origins of this history began in Biafra in when stark images of starving children evoking a very specific representational memory were used to encourage charitable aid: Demos, Return to the Postcolony: Specters of Colonialism in Contemporary Art , Berlin: Sternberg Press, , Challenging National Homogeneity , eds.
Palgrave Macmillan, , ; Editrice La Scuola, Appartenenza, razza e razzismo in Europa e in Italia Rome: Carocci, , From Testimony to Ethics Oxford: Oxford University Press, , See, for instance, note 34 below. Lampedusa tra produzione e messa in scena della frontiera Milan: Cultural Studies , This body of work reflects a significant diversity of emphasis, in part due to disciplinary difference, but also due to the shifting geopolitical forces which envelop the island. The Missing Migrants Project maintains on-going statistical information on lives lost in the process of migration: Palgrave Macmillan, , 7.
Urban Palimpsests and the Politics of Memory, Stanford: Yale University Press, Remembering the Holocaust in the Age of Decolonization, Stanford: Stanford University Press, , Guri Schwarz very usefully reminded me of this in a private note.
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Four Photographs from Auschwitz, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, Again the point is not to compare two historical instances, but rather to reflect critically on the production, dissemination, and reception of visual documents and their complex temporalities. The incident is analysed by Dines et al. This difference underlines, however, the power of the visual to entangle quite distinct instances.
As I have noted elsewhere, an entanglement with the Middle Passage has also been made in academic literature. Annalisa Oboe and Anna Scacchi Routledge: New York, , Rizzoli, ; Roma negata: Ediesse, ; Adua Florence: His influential essay cited by Braidotti is: Polity, , Gordon makes the point that from the late s, there was an increased tendency to see the introduction of the Race Laws in , rather than the Nazi deportations of , as the starting point of the Holocaust in Italy. By anticipating the start date, Italians themselves become more tightly entangled in the narration and network of events: Gordon, Holocaust in Italian Culture , Also available at https: An increasing interest in the transnational and transversal dimensions of visual representation of the Shoah is seen in work such as Daniel Levy and Natan Sznaider, The Holocaust and Memory in the Global Age Philadelphia: Temple University Press, ; Holocaust Intersections: Genocide and Visual Culture in the New Millenium eds.
Axel Bangert, Robert S. Gordon, Libby Saxton Oxford: Marco Carsetti and Alessandro Triulzi Rome: Infinito, , University of Chicago Press, , The images recall graphic underwater footage shot on the sunken boat. Now widely available online, the footage clearly shows images of the dead including that of a couple locked in an embrace https: Serasini cites also the underwater sculptures of Jason deCaires Taylor as a source of inspiration http: The underwater sculpture park he created off the coast of Grenada contains figures which evoke memories of the Middle Passage although the artist is reluctant to pin his work to a single referent.